Just Gracing a vets door will cost you allot and steroids pheno and other drugs vets like to give the dogs will cause cascading effects in many autoimmune diseases and seizures giving them even more business please be cautious most likely over the counter human low dose antihistamine and or gold bond medicated powder on sores is all that is needed , for flaking dry skin ad oils to diet and stop feeding Iams eukanaba foods. Ignore itching even if it seems extreme at times going to the vet most often makes it worse! all dogs itch especially house dogs let them be dogs! itching will get better of more time is spent outside! many antihistamine will give a dog seizures as well so always start with a half a pill.. never give more them one pill a day. some online pharmacies below with much better lower priced med's this is not professional advice just what I do!

Pharmacy Checker Approved and CIPA certified Online PharmacyFree Shipping Availablebanner


Please note: Media Relations is unable to answer questions about specific pet health problems. Contact your veterinarian.


  Early spay and nueter in large breed dogs is now considered a Direct cause OF some HD and severe allergies. ealry spay or nueter is any spay or neuter before two years of age.

here is an article as to why women tend to develope allergies after menapause the loss of hormones is a direct cause for humans as well as animals! when I spay a breeding female in about a year she experiences more dry skin, more itching, more ear infection issues then she every did the first 7 years of her life... I had a complete historctomy never was allergic to anything a year later I have allergies kicking up? I believe especially female dogs have a direct link to estrogen loss and allergies


Also auto immune problems (allergies, panus, ear and eye disease ect...) are brought on directly from over use of vaccines- after the first year only vaccinate one every three years - please-


Posted from websight menapause .com


The bodyęs hormones and the immune system use many of the same chemical messengers that allergies can react from. Changes in any of the individual components can affect the rest of the overall workings of the body; So, when hormones become imbalanced as a result of menopause (or any other period of time that hormone fluctuations are likely to occur), the immune system can suffer and make a woman more prone to allergies.
As menopause approaches, a womanęs body prepares to cease menstruation for the remainder of her life. A necessary step is for her hormones, particularly estrogen and progesterone, to drastically decrease.

Hormone level fluctuations can have a significant impact on both the incidence of allergies and the severity of allergy symptoms. Although the mechanisms are not always well understood, changes in hormone levels are frequently associated with the development of allergies or changes in allergy symptoms, particularly for hay fever, asthma, and dermatitis.

Triggers of Allergies

Along with hormonal causes of allergies, other factors can trigger increased susceptibility to allergies or intensified symptoms. Some of those factors include: diet, some types of medications, and stress.

Continue reading to learn more about the treatment options available for allergies during menopause. http://www.34-menopause-symptoms.com/allergies.htm

Whole Dog News - Dogs With Allergies

In This Issue...

Dogs With Allergies
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Dogs With Allergies

Allergies are becoming increasingly common and troublesome in dogs. Why?
Allergies and their reactions are actually a symptom of toxic overload. An allergic reaction is simply the body’s way of responding to a toxin or contaminant overload. The toxins or contaminants have built up in body to the place that the body can no longer tolerate them and most cases are no longer able to eliminate them from the body. In other words it is the body’s way of saying, “No more, please!”

Interestingly, chemical residue buildup in the body may come from both natural and artificial sources. Things like natural or artificial preservatives, fillers and flavorings in the food you are feeding, environmental pollutants, vaccines, medications, chemical wormers, and even non species specific foods such as grains and vegetables.

80% of chronic diseases are caused by toxins in our dog’s environment that have built up in their bodies. Our companion animals are kind of like the old mine canaries, they are just one more indicator that our world is not “as it used to be”. Our soils are depleted and chemically treated. Our dog’s poor bodies (as well as other animals and even our own bodies) are just not getting the nutrients that they should from their food. Mass produced, processed dog foods, household cleaning products, vaccinations, and overall greater stress on the immune system caused by these and other issues are all culprits.

Fortunately, allergies can be effectively treated and the body “de-toxed” with a natural, holistic approach. Be aware, that a conventional veterinarian’s first recommendation will be to put your dog on steroids, this is NOT the best approach for their long term health and does not get to the root of the cause, it only suppresses the immune system. Conventional medicine’s approach is one of treating symptoms rather than causes. With the appropriate diet and complementary natural remedies, you can effectively treat both the symptoms and the cause of allergies.

The most common triggers of allergic reactions in our canine companions are food, fleas, vaccinations and inhalants (things your dog breathes in). Food, over vaccination and fleas are things that we have control over. Environmental triggers such as air pollution or the herbicides used on the grass at your local park are out of our control, but that doesn’t mean the allergies can’t be managed. In all cases, it is best to use a multi-pronged or “holistic” approach which includes a fresh, species appropriate diet along with supplements and herbs to balance the immune system and ease the symptoms.

So, the good news is that our dog’s bodies are up for the fight. They are well designed to naturally perform a daily detoxification as we stop the bombardment of toxins the best we can. The key organs or systems that perform this vital task are the skin, the digestive tract, the lungs, the blood, the lymphatic system, the kidneys, and the liver. When these areas of the body display an allergic reaction, such as with the skin or immune system; this is a clear indicator that the body needs help! Something is overloading this hard working system. The body is sending out the alarm. Sadly, with our canine companions, this is sometimes only evident on the outside, after internal health conditions have persisted for a long time.

What do we do? Most of us just keep switching brands of kibble or eliminating one ingredient at a time or adding more supplements, or more expensive and complicated additives to the diet. If the allergy is caused by just ONE thing this might help. However, with more and more research we see that symptoms may subside initially from the switch, but gradually, the same problems return.

Diet: Dogs with food sensitivities and allergies have had dramatic improvement on a raw food diet. Our wonderful companions are after all, are Digestive Enzymes & Probiotics. The probiotics are especially important for an animal that has been on steroids and antibiotics as they kill the healthy gut flora and set up conditions for the allergies to worsen. If a raw meat and bone diet is not fed daily then it is very important to continue to supplement with this whenever you feed processed food to aid digestion of processed foods

Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs): Supplement with Essential Fatty Acids (preferably wild fish oil) to nourish your companion’s skin and coat and help reduce inflammation. You can increase the dosage above what is recommended on the bottle, but if you see loose stools, then reduce the dosage a bit.

Immune Modulation

Supplements to help modulate the immune system are very helpful in treating allergies.

Detoxification/Elimination Support

Detoxification is essential for any animal that has been treated with multiple courses of medications such as steroids, antibiotics or antihistamines not to mention those fed a dead, processed pet food for any length of time. Detoxing is also a wonderful way of maintaining good health in our pets.

The length of time supplements may be necessary will vary with the severity of the problem,the response of the individual animal and the life changes such diet that are made. Natural supplements, herbs and remedies are not like prescription medications - they may vary in effectiveness from one animal to the next, and in many instances take time to reach full effectiveness, up to several weeks or more.

Relieving the Itch

Herbs and supplements designed to relieve the itchy skin and support skin health are another step in the treatment program for chronic allergies. This can help relieve the stress caused by the discomfort, which is supportive of immune function and healing. In addition, reducing the itch helps in the reduction of secondary infections and allows the skin to heal.

Skin Balance by Health Concerns is an excellent herbal complex for the treatment of itchy skin in dogs The herbs in Skin Balance reduce inflammation and itching as well as boost skin health and assist in the cleansing of the blood.

HomeoPet Skin and Itch Relief, a homeopathic remedy, may be helpful for some animals. This will be more effective once any residual steroids or medications have been cleared from the system. HomeoPet Hot Spots is similar to the Skin and Itch Relief formula, but contains additional remedies to address the red, inflamed or oozing hot spot areas.

Topical Treatments

If your dog has been itching for awhile, they may have created bare, red patches in places that can become infected, so you need to address these areas right away. Here are some products offered at The Whole Dog that can help.

•FidoDerm Herbal Spray•Doc Ackerman’s Instant Hot Spot Relief Spray
•Liquid Hot Spot Remedy (herbal extracts & essential oils)
•Oatmeal Baths

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Whole Dog News - Our Fears And Vaccine Dangers

In This Issue...

Our Fears And Vaccine Dangers
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Our Fears And Vaccine Dangers


I wanted to share an artricle by Catherine O’Driscoll with you today. This article is very informative and timely.

Please note that Dr Patricia Jordan (some quotes of hers in this article) will be on Animal Talk Naturally Online Radio Show this week, April 15th, 2009 at 2:30 PM.

Enjoy the article:

Vaccine Damage Article - Dogs Today
By Catherine O’Driscoll

You may have studied canine behaviour in order to understand why dogs Do what they do, and how their behaviour can be modified. I wonder if You’ve studied human behaviour, as I have, to understand why people Treat their dogs so badly, and how they can be encouraged to look After them better?

Dog owners come from all walks of life. At one end of the scale are those who like to be in control. These include people with antisocial personality disorder, also known as psychopaths. Psychopaths, due to Their genes or their early childhood environment, show callous disregard for the rights and feelings of others. They are the people Most likely to physically abuse animals (and other humans).
Psychopaths are usually highly intelligent. They understand others well, but they don’t care about them. They can be manipulative and dishonest, exploiting others for personal gain. Although you may
Assume that psychopaths are the crazed serial killers we hear about in the news, they’re actually represented in all walks of life, and particularly at the top of the business world. Many of our captains
Of industry are psychopaths.

Narcissists are similar to psychopaths. They are egotists with a sense of superiority and a lack of empathy. others don’t matter, they’re simply a means to an end. Narcissists exploit others whose
Needs they feel to be less important. Many top business people are Narcissists.

The vast majority of society sits at the other end of the scale. They’re the followers, named ‘codependent’ in psycho-speak. Codependents are naturally amenable to control. It’s estimated that over 90% of people in our society are codependent to a degree. Codependent people have been taught, as children, not to trust their own thoughts or feelings. They lack self esteem and long to be regarded favourably. They believe that those in authority know better than them. Very few people are therefore able to work out what’s true and what isn’t, because the people who seek power are pulling strings for their own ends. I’m not saying this as a cynic, but as someone who has studied what is officially known about human behaviour.

The end result is that we harm our dogs accidentally, because we’ve been manipulated by individuals and corporations into believing a pack of lies. The lie that most dog owners currently believe, and
Which is causing horrendous harm, is that dogs need to be vaccinated every year. This is just not true.

A woman on an Internet discussion group said recently:
“I vaccinate my dogs yearly. I’d never forgive myself if they become poorly and I could have prevented it through a simple yearly injection.” This woman is speaking from fear. Fear makes it’s easy to manipulate people into believing that annual shots are necessary when they are not.

Another woman replied:
“That’s exactly how I feel. I do worry, though, as Mollie has a small reaction after her boosters every year, but unless it was to get worse, I would still vaccinate.” This woman is also speaking from fear, sponsored by a lie. The tragedy is that, having already shown reactions to vaccines, the next unnecessary vaccine could kill her dog.

A third woman said:
“Susie gets annual boosters. Ollie doesn’t get any more boosters since becoming very ill after one. He seems to have a problem with his immune system, of unknown cause, that rears up sometimes.”

If the vet were knowledgeable and honest, he would have told Ollie’s wwner that vaccines can cause immune-mediated diseases. Vaccines probably made Ollie ill in the first place, and neither he nor Susie
Need annual shots.

Here is a statement of truth: once immune, dogs are immune against viral disease for years or life. The study group set up by the WSAVA (World Small Animal Veterinary Association) on vaccines has come up with global guidelines which categorically state that dogs and cats should NOT be vaccinated at more than three yearly intervals, and then only for core vaccines - distemper, parvovirus and adenovirus.

Core vaccines do not include Leptospirosis, which the WSAVA acknowledges as causing more adverse reactions than other vaccines. Importantly, the WSAVA acknowledges that vaccines can be harmful, and Titer (blood) tests are safer than revaccination.

I constantly receive emails from people whose dogs have been harmed by vaccines. Edward McKenzie-Clark stated: “Last week, at the request of the new owner, I had a puppy I bred vaccinated. The puppy went downhill overnight and is now seriously ill. The vet is telling me that this puppy’s condition and the vaccination are coincidences. The puppy is going into kidney failure caused by either leptospirosis (in the vaccine) or drinking anti-freeze (impossible) . Can there be a connection between the vaccine and the puppy’s health?”

If this man had given this puppy heroin, his vet would be in no doubt as to cause and effect. It’s amazing how they don’t connect the dots. In fact, a study conducted by Purdue University found that
vaccinated, but not unvaccinated, dogs developed auto-antibodies to a wide range of their own biochemicals. One of these was laminin, which coats kidney cells. Vaccinated dogs were attacking their own kidneys.

Vaccines can also cause the disease you’re attempting to prevent. In the Canine Health Concern vaccine survey, 100% of dogs with leptospirosis contracted it just after being vaccinated against it.
Leptospirosis, of course, attacks the kidneys - and the puppy had severe kidney damage.

Edward wrote again. “I had to put Hamish to sleep on Sunday. He deteriorated rapidly over the weekend and I decided I couldn’t allow him to go through any more. There are a lot of ‘if only we did this’ days. My other half says I’m too hard on myself and perhaps I can be but it’s very hard to put out of my mind what that poor baby had to go through.”

A few days later, Edward wrote: “The pharmaceutical company have said they will pay for an autopsy. I’ve said if you pick up the rest of the £300 bill. They refused so I’m refusing to let them have the
autopsy done. I asked why are you so keen on an autopsy when you claim it wasn’t your vaccine? No answer! I stopped vaccinating in 1990 after a similar incident and this was only done at the new
owner’s request so NEVER again will a vaccine come near my dogs.”

I shared Edward’s story with Dr Patricia Jordan, a veterinarian who has done a great deal of research into the vaccine issue. She added these comments: “Kidney failure is a common sequel to vaccination. The basement membrane is susceptible to damage from a clogging that results as the immune complexes are drained via the lymphatics. The kidney is a big part of the lymphatic system. The body tries to clear the toxins in the vaccines and there is damage done in this clearing mechanism.

“Lepto is a very adverse event associated vaccine and the damndest thing is that lepto vaccines simply do not work. Dr Ron Schultz (the world’s foremost independent authority on canine vaccines) hates to see them in with anything else and, in puppies, advises that they are completely finished with the viral inoculations before getting a vaccine against Lepto, which he neither recommends nor advocates - even in Lepto endemic areas.

“I have seen older dogs go into kidney failure within two days of receiving a Lepto vaccine.”

Many dog lovers, I suspect, have difficulty in understanding the science surrounding vaccination, so they’d rather trust the ‘experts’ than struggle to understand. Dr Jordan sent me one of her diary
notes, which isn’t technical in the least. Perhaps this will have meaning for you?

“What a depressing day today. I had to kill a patient who was vaccinated every year, fed crappy food, and was so immune exhausted that he had everything wrong - coccidia, yeast overgrowth, cancer. I
took pictures of his poor wracked body. I only had about a month to try to reverse his condition. It was insurmountable due to the years of visits to the vet and resulting complete adrenal exhaustion and
immunosuppression. He was just spent. “The day got worse. I heard barking in the reception and found a tiny eight pound terrorist barking at a tall noble greyhound. The tall dog was looking desperate and his sides were heaving. I went back to finish the patient I was with. By the time I had finished, I’d missed the next patient and the owner of the practice had him. “I was able to walk by the room for another reason and was very concerned to see vaccines laid out in the room - with the dog who
looked like he couldn’t breathe. I have ranted and raved against vaccines - the over-use and the fact that every single day there is malpractice committed with the administration of this danger to sick
and geriatric animals. Anyway, the dog was shot up with vaccines. “After lunch, I returned to see two of the kennel workers carrying that dog’s dead body back to the freezer for burial. He had gone home and died. The owner was very upset. Apparently, he wasn’t expecting to have vaccinated his pet and his pet die shortly thereafter.

“I looked at the record. The dog had been a cardiac patient for a while, with terrible heart murmurs. That was why he was so concerned about the barking terrier, if only eight pounds. The dog could hardly get around, so why was he administered an eight way MLV vaccine?

“There appears to be very little compassion in this field. Very little honesty and integrity for the patient of the client. I will get blasted by most vets reading this, but the situation is true.
It’s a desperate situation.”

I agree with Dr Jordan. The situation is desperate. Those in authority don’t appear to care, and the pet owners seem unable to get out of the mode of following.

Alice Hughes wrote to me: “Please help. Our pup is six years old and has suffered terribly from arthritis. For three weeks she lost the use of her back end. One week ago today she had her booster and
within days she was in distress and is barely moving around. She is lethargic and sad. What can we do? I am not sure if I should take her to the vet for advice because when we were there last Saturday, he seemed displeased that I turned down the kennel cough shot (I just felt uneasy about so many chemicals going into her and she is never in a kennel). He is 100% behind the annual shots and sends me notices each year, twice. I feel like I am killing her.”

Research shows that vaccines can cause arthritis. They can also, as a symptom of encephalitis (which is an acknowledged vaccine reaction), cause paralysis of the rear end.

Elaine Loydall wrote: “Two weeks ago we did the year’s round of boosters. Our younger boy who is 16 months had a massive fit almost two weeks after the jabs. It was scary. Do you have a view on this,
and does this mirror other experiences? ”

Yes it does mirror other experiences. Epilepsy is another symptom of encephalitis, an acknowledged vaccine sequel. Millions of pounds have been paid out worldwide in compensation to the parents of epileptic, vaccine damaged, children.

Brenda Hopping wrote:
“I took my eleven year old dog (the love of my life!) to have his boosters yesterday. Just minutes after leaving the vets, he collapsed to the ground in an unconscious state and looked as if he was dying. The sight of this was horrendous, just seeing his legs at awkward angles and in spasms.
“He did come round, but his eyes were glazed and he looked completely disorientated. I couldn’t lift him. I managed to persuade him to his feet and he wobbled back to the vets. My dog has a slight heart
murmur and I feared the worst.

The vet would not say that it may be something to do with the vaccination. He just told me to take my dog home and advised me that if it happened again, I should bring my dog back for an ECG.
“In my mind it is too much of a coincidence that his ‘attack’ was straight after the vaccination. I really think that the state of confusion and the lack of knowledge on the part of the owner is beneficial to the vet and invariably to the pharmaceutical companies.”

Proceedings of the First Veterinary Vaccine Symposium, held in 1997, advised that geriatric dogs - over eight years of age - should not be vaccinated. All vaccine datasheets state that only healthy animals should be vaccinated. A dog with a heart murmur is not healthy. He should not be vaccinated: he can die.

To make matters worse, Brenda was forced to have her cat euthanised recently as his vaccine-induced cancer had become so aggressive. Brenda says, “His big eyes and lovely face still haunt me and I am in tears now as I write to you. To think, if I had been better informed, he may still be with me now.”

When I started reporting vaccine reactions back in 1994, a limited amount of research was available. It isn’t limited any more. What is needed now is for vets to stop giving unnecessary annual shots, to
start upholding the truth, and for pet owners to become aware of the truth and honour the trust their dogs place in them.

It is a sad fact that we live in a world where we can’t trust apparently respectable business people and healthcare providers to put our dogs’ health first. We need to wise up - our dogs depend on

Thank you Cathrine for letting me post this article on Whole Dog News!
Dr Patricia Jordan will be joining Dr Jeannie and Dr Kim on Animal Talk Naturally Radio Show LIVE on April 15th at 2:30 PM Eastern time to begin her series with us on the dangers of vaccines and her book, Mark Of The Beast.

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New Jersey doctor's wife spends a year organizing a fundraiser for the
California based Rabies Challenge Fund. Event to be held at Rutgers New
Brunswick Saturday March 14, 2009

Judy Schor of Toms River thought she was doing the right thing when she
took her seven year old Rat Terrier Peaches for a rabies shot on April
9, 2007. Prior to her routine vet visit, Peaches
was an extremely healthy, nationally ranked agility champion who had
already won her ADCh (the highest title awarded by the United States
Agility Dog Association) . She had been a 2007 USDAA Regional Grand Prix
finalist and Clean Run Magazine's Ultimate
60 Weave Pole Breed Champion. Schor believes that vet visit led to the
end of her dog's highly successful performance career and inspired her
to organize a multi-state fund raiser in support of the Rabies Challenge

Shortly after Memorial day 2007, Peaches developed ear lesions and the
hair around the injection site on her right rear leg changed color.
Schor returned to her vet and was prescribed an antibacterial,
antifungal ointment for the lesions.

"I was told they had no clue about the hair color change," she
recounted in an email.

In October 2007 Peaches right rear leg developed a massive swelling. A
visit to a specialist (and a $600 vet bill) yielded no results. Blotchy
patches began to appear on Peaches' belly. Schor
consulted specialists as far away as Maryland. There were many vet
visits and invasive tests. Eventually, Peaches was put on prednisone and
Schor was told nothing further could be done.
Schor was not willing to give up on her little dog and kept trying
different vets.

One of the specialists she consulted asked when Peaches had last been
vaccinated but was not willing to suggest a relation between the vaccine
and Peaches' condition.

Schor resorted to what she calls "Google U." She entered Peaches
symptoms and the term "vaccination" into the search engine and found a
reference to Rabies Vaccine Induced Ischemic Vasculitis, an auto-immune
disease whose symptoms matched Peaches. She
also found Dr. Daniel Morris, DVm ACVD Chief Professor Of Dermatology at
the University of Pennsylvania who had a special interest in this disease.

"It took us many tears, many DVM's unwilling to diagnose her, months of
prednisone to control symptoms, many biopsies, MRI's etc, and finally
approximately $12,000 to get her properly
diagnosed by a University of Pennsylvania' s Chief Professor of
Dermatology, Dr. Daniel Morris, in early March of 2008," Schor explained
in an email. The diagnosis did not lead to a cure for Peaches but the
experience inspired Schor to undertake a
year-long project to raise awareness and money for the Rabies
Challenge Fund. Although many pet owners believe vaccinations are
entirely benign and beneficial to their pets, clinical studies show that
the long term effect on the animal's immune system is unpredictable
and can result in autoimmune diseases, site specific cancers and
neuro-disorders. Current state laws requiring one or three-year rabies
vaccinations are not based on medical research, Schor
explained. As a doctor's wife she had worked on fundraisers in the past
for human diseases. She used her agility contacts and the internet to
recruit a group of 84 volunteers and began to organize the 2009 North
East Rabies Challenge Fund Fundraiser which will be held on March 14,
2009 from 9 am to 5 pm in Trayes Hall on the Rutgers/Douglass Campus in
New Brunswick, NJ.

The event has attracted vets and pet owners from 19 states including
Texas, Georgia and California as well as Canada. Over 200 people have
already registered for the event that will
feature two internationally acknowledged experts in the field of
vaccines, Dr. W. Jean Dodds, DVM and Dr ..Ronald A. Schultz, Ph.D

The Rabies Challenge Fund is a not for profit organization co-founded by
Dr. Dodds, veterinary research scientist, practicing veterinarian and
founder of HEMOPET, (the non-profit animal
blood bank), and Kris Christine, whose own dog suffered from
vaccinosis, to support a Rabies vaccine challenge study currently taking
place at the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary medicine. The
goal is to extend the required interval for rabies boosters to 5 and
then to 7 years and help protect pets from the consequences of
over-vaccination. Because the rabies vaccine is the most potent of the
veterinary vaccines and is associated with
significant adverse reactions, it should be given no more often than
necessary to maintain immunity. Some studies strongly suggest that
annual or triennial rabies boosters for dogs are redundant and, in some
cases (like Peaches) very injurious to the dogs. Dr. Ronald D. Schultz,
Chairman of Pathobiology at the University of Wisconsin has volunteered
to direct the project. Currently in it's second year, the Rabies
Challenge Study is supported almost entirely by grass roots fund
raising. Approximately $150,000 a year must be raised to complete the
study. Scientific data published in France in 1992 by Michel Aubert and
his research team demonstrated that dogs were immune to a rabies
challenge 5 years after vaccination, while Dr.
Schultz's own serological studies documented antibody titer counts at
levels known to confer immunity to rabies 7 years postvaccination.
Unfortunately serological studies are not sufficient to change state
rabies laws in the United States. In order to convince legislators,
challenge studies must be undertaken that prove that dogs
not revaccinated for five and seven years after their first two
vaccinations are as protected as they were after receiving their second
shot. Dr Schultz will speak on what every dog owner should know about
canine vaccines and vaccination programs. Dr. Dodds will present
clinical approaches to managing and treating adverse vaccine reactions.
A moderated question and answer period will
follow. Additional information on the event can be found at
http://www.freewebs .com/rcfbenefit2 009/index. htm.
The Rabies Vaccine is the only vaccine required by law and some states
still require annual revaccination despite no scientific evidence for
that frequency.

Today Peaches rear leg is swollen again and her feet are oozing. Schor
continues to look for a cure and get out the word. "Peaches story
inspired me to hold this Benefit to educate people on the lack of
science behind the Rabies Vaccination laws," she said.

Morgan and His Angels
Precious, OFA
Princess, CGC, TDI, GSDCA Health Award
"RAW" fed, No Vaccinations




Natural Flea Repellent

          From the internet


Got this off the Naturally Grey List....worth a thought!


After being requested to post it, here is our natural flea remedy. We have been asked to post it on the collie sites many times. We live in flea and tick heaven here in hot South Texas ... and have never, never, ever seen a flea or tick on our dogs or cats. Many other collie owners have written to say they use this and have completely rid themselves of fleas. Hope this helps someone:


Take a BIG fat lemon (the more rind the better) and slice it paper thin.  Put in a bowl with a tablespoon of crushed rosemary leaves (or a 6 inch sprig of fresh). Pour over with a quart of hot, near boiling water.  Let steep overnight. Strain and put into a large spray bottle. Keep in fridge. Shake well before applying. The d-limeone in this spray along with the rosemary oil will give your dog a beautiful shiny coat and keep fleas and other bugs away including mosquitoes, so you get extra heartworm protection. If your dog has dry skin or allergies add a teaspoon of tea tree oil and a tablespoon of Aloe pulp. Use the spray at least twice a week to keep the scent on the coat to repel bugs, and spray it around your doors and through the carpets. If it's a bad flea time, spray daily on the belly and feet to repel them. This has worked wonders for us for many years. Not only for the dogs, but for us when we go hiking or walking in the woods. No bug will get near this stuff. And, of course, it's all natural.


Page 1 of 12
Long-Term Health Risks and Benefits Associated with Spay / Neuter in Dogs
Laura J. Sanborn, M.S.
May 14, 2007

At some point, most of us with an interest in dogs will have to consider whether or not to spay / neuter our
pet. Tradition holds that the benefits of doing so at an early age outweigh the risks. Often, tradition holds
sway in the decision-making process even after countervailing evidence has accumulated.

Ms Sanborn has reviewed the veterinary medical literature in an exhaustive and scholarly treatise,
attempting to unravel the complexities of the subject. More than 50 peer-reviewed papers were examined to
assess the health impacts of spay / neuter in female and male dogs, respectively. One cannot ignore the
findings of increased risk from osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, hypothyroidism, and other less frequently
occurring diseases associated with neutering male dogs. It would be irresponsible of the veterinary
profession and the pet owning community to fail to weigh the relative costs and benefits of neutering on the
animal’s health and well-being. The decision for females may be more complex, further emphasizing the
need for individualized veterinary medical decisions, not standard operating procedures for all patients.

No sweeping generalizations are implied in this review. Rather, the author asks us to consider all the health
and disease information available as individual animals are evaluated. Then, the best decisions should be
made accounting for gender, age, breed, and even the specific conditions under which the long-term care,
housing and training of the animal will occur.

This important review will help veterinary medical care providers as well as pet owners make informed
decisions. Who could ask for more?

Larry S. Katz, PhD
Associate Professor and Chair
Animal Sciences
Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ 08901


Dog owners in America are frequently advised to spay/neuter their dogs for health reasons. A number of
health benefits are cited, yet evidence is usually not cited to support the alleged health benefits.

When discussing the health impacts of spay/neuter, health risks are often not mentioned. At times, some
risks are mentioned, but the most severe risks usually are not.

This article is an attempt to summarize the long-term health risks and benefits associated with spay/neuter
in dogs that can be found in the veterinary medical literature. This article will not discuss the impact of
spay/neuter on population control, or the impact of spay/neuter on behavior.

Nearly all of the health risks and benefits summarized in this article are findings from retrospective
epidemiological research studies of dogs, which examine potential associations by looking backwards in
time. A few are from prospective research studies, which examine potential associations by looking forward
in time.


An objective reading of the veterinary medical literature reveals a complex situation with respect to the long-
term health risks and benefits associated with spay/neuter in dogs. The evidence shows that spay/neuter
Page 2 of 12
correlates with both positive AND adverse health effects in dogs. It also suggests how much we really do
not yet understand about this subject.

On balance, it appears that no compelling case can be made for neutering most male dogs, especially
immature male dogs, in order to prevent future health problems. The number of health problems associated
with neutering may exceed the associated health benefits in most cases.

On the positive side, neutering male dogs
• eliminates the small risk (probably <1%) of dying from testicular cancer
• reduces the risk of non-cancerous prostate disorders
• reduces the risk of perianal fistulas
• may possibly reduce the risk of diabetes (data inconclusive)

On the negative side, neutering male dogs
• if done before 1 year of age, significantly increases the risk of osteosarcoma (bone cancer); this is a
common cancer in medium/large and larger breeds with a poor prognosis.
• increases the risk of cardiac hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 1.6
• triples the risk of hypothyroidism
• increases the risk of progressive geriatric cognitive impairment
• triples the risk of obesity, a common health problem in dogs with many associated health problems
• quadruples the small risk (<0.6%) of prostate cancer
• doubles the small risk (<1%) of urinary tract cancers
• increases the risk of orthopedic disorders
• increases the risk of adverse reactions to vaccinations

For female dogs, the situation is more complex. The number of health benefits associated with spaying may
exceed the associated health problems in some (not all) cases. On balance, whether spaying improves the
odds of overall good health or degrades them probably depends on the age of the female dog and the
relative risk of various diseases in the different breeds.

On the positive side, spaying female dogs
• if done before 2.5 years of age, greatly reduces the risk of mammary tumors, the most common
malignant tumors in female dogs
• nearly eliminates the risk of pyometra, which otherwise would affect about 23% of intact female
dogs; pyometra kills about 1% of intact female dogs
• reduces the risk of perianal fistulas
• removes the very small risk (≤0.5%) from uterine, cervical, and ovarian tumors

On the negative side, spaying female dogs
• if done before 1 year of age, significantly increases the risk of osteosarcoma (bone cancer); this is a
common cancer in larger breeds with a poor prognosis
• increases the risk of splenic hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 2.2 and cardiac hemangiosarcoma by
a factor of >5; this is a common cancer and major cause of death in some breeds
• triples the risk of hypothyroidism
• increases the risk of obesity by a factor of 1.6-2, a common health problem in dogs with many
associated health problems
• causes urinary “spay incontinence” in 4-20% of female dogs
• increases the risk of persistent or recurring urinary tract infections by a factor of 3-4
• increases the risk of recessed vulva, vaginal dermatitis, and vaginitis, especially for female dogs
spayed before puberty
• doubles the small risk (<1%) of urinary tract tumors
• increases the risk of orthopedic disorders
• increases the risk of adverse reactions to vaccinations

One thing is clear – much of the spay/neuter information that is available to the public is unbalanced and
contains claims that are exaggerated or unsupported by evidence. Rather than helping to educate pet
Page 3 of 12
owners, much of it has contributed to common misunderstandings about the health risks and benefits
associated of spay/neuter in dogs.

The traditional spay/neuter age of six months as well as the modern practice of pediatric spay/neuter appear
to predispose dogs to health risks that could otherwise be avoided by waiting until the dog is physically
mature, or perhaps in the case of many male dogs, foregoing it altogether unless medically necessary.

The balance of long-term health risks and benefits of spay/neuter will vary from one dog to the next. Breed,
age, and gender are variables that must be taken into consideration in conjunction with non-medical factors
for each individual dog. Across-the-board recommendations for all pet dogs do not appear to be
supportable from findings in the veterinary medical literature.


This section summarizes the diseases or conditions that have been studied with respect to spay/neuter in

Complications from Spay/Neuter Surgery

All surgery incurs some risk of complications, including adverse reactions to anesthesia, hemorrhage,
inflammation, infection, etc. Complications include only immediate and near term impacts that are clearly
linked to the surgery, not to longer term impacts that can only be assessed by research studies.

At one veterinary teaching hospital where complications were tracked, the rates of intraoperative,
postoperative and total complications were 6.3%, 14.1% and 20.6%, respectively as a result of spaying
female dogs1. Other studies found a rate of total complications from spaying of 17.7%2 and 23%3. A study
of Canadian veterinary private practitioners found complication rates of 22% and 19% for spaying female
dogs and neutering male dogs, respectively4.

Serious complications such as infections, abscesses, rupture of the surgical wound, and chewed out sutures
were reported at a 1- 4% frequency, with spay and castration surgeries accounting for 90% and 10% of
these complications, respectively.4

The death rate due to complications from spay/neuter is low, at around 0.1%2.

Prostate Cancer

Much of the spay/neuter information available to the public asserts that neutering will reduce or eliminate the
risk that male dogs develop prostate cancer. This would not be an unreasonable assumption, given that
prostate cancer in humans is linked to testosterone. But the evidence in dogs does not support this claim.
In fact, the strongest evidence suggests just the opposite.

There have been several conflicting epidemiological studies over the years that found either an increased
risk or a decreased risk of prostate cancer in neutered dogs. These studies did not utilize control
populations, rendering these results at best difficult to interpret. This may partially explain the conflicting

More recently, two retrospective studies were conducted that did utilize control populations. One of these
studies involved a dog population in Europe5 and the other involved a dog population in America6. Both
studies found that neutered male dogs have a four times higher risk of prostate cancer than intact dogs.

Based on their results, the researchers suggest a cause-and-effect relationship: “this suggests that
castration does not initiate the development of prostatic carcinoma in the dog, but does favor tumor
progression”5 and also “Our study found that most canine prostate cancers are of ductal/urothelial
origin….The relatively low incidence of prostate cancer in intact dogs may suggest that testicular hormones
Page 4 of 12
are in fact protective against ductal/urothelial prostatic carcinoma, or may have indirect effects on cancer
development by changing the environment in the prostate.”6

This needs to be put in perspective. Unlike the situation in humans, prostate cancer is uncommon in dogs.
Given an incidence of prostate cancer in dogs of less than 0.6% from necropsy studies7, it is difficult to see
that the risk of prostate cancer should factor heavily into most neutering decisions. There is evidence for an
increased risk of prostate cancer in at least one breed (Bouviers)5, though very little data so far to guide us
in regards to other breeds.

Testicular Cancer

Since the testicles are removed with neutering, castration removes any risk of testicular cancer (assuming
the castration is done before cancer develops). This needs to be compared to the risk of testicular cancer in
intact dogs.

Testicular tumors are not uncommon in older intact dogs, with a reported incidence of 7%8. However, the
prognosis for treating testicular tumors is very good owing to a low rate of metastasis9, so testicular cancer
is an uncommon cause of death in intact dogs. For example, in a Purdue University breed health survey of
Golden Retrievers10, deaths due to testicular cancer were sufficiently infrequent that they did not appear on
list of significant causes of "Years of Potential Life Lost for Veterinary Confirmed Cause of Death” even
though 40% of GR males were intact. Furthermore, the GRs who were treated for testicular tumors had a
90.9% cure rate. This agrees well with other work that found 6-14% rates of metastasis for testicular tumors
in dogs11.

The high cure rate of testicular tumors combined with their frequency suggests that fewer than 1% of intact
male dogs will die of testicular cancer.

In summary, though it may be the most common reason why many advocate neutering young male dogs,
the risk from life threatening testicular cancer is sufficiently low that neutering most male dogs to prevent it is
difficult to justify.

An exception might be bilateral or unilateral cryptorchids, as testicles that are retained in the abdomen are
13.6 times more likely to develop tumors than descended testicles12 and it is also more difficult to detect
tumors in undescended testicles by routine physical examination.

Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)

A multi-breed case-control study of the risk factors for osteosarcoma found that spay/neutered dogs (males
or females) had twice the risk of developing osteosarcoma as did intact dogs13.

This risk was further studied in Rottweilers, a breed with a relatively high risk of osteosarcoma. This
retrospective cohort study broke the risk down by age at spay/neuter, and found that the elevated risk of
osteosarcoma is associated with spay/neuter of young dogs14. Rottweilers spayed/neutered before one
year of age were 3.8 (males) or 3.1 (females) times more likely to develop osteosarcoma than intact dogs.
Indeed, the combination of breed risk and early spay/neuter meant that Rottweilers spayed/neutered before
one year of age had a 28.4% (males) and 25.1% (females) risk of developing osteosarcoma. These results
are consistent with the earlier multi-breed study13 but have an advantage of assessing risk as a function of
age at neuter. A logical conclusion derived from combining the findings of these two studies is that
spay/neuter of dogs before 1 year of age is associated with a significantly increased risk of osteosarcoma.

The researchers suggest a cause-and-effect relationship, as sex hormones are known to influence the
maintenance of skeletal structure and mass, and also because their findings showed an inverse relationship
between time of exposure to sex hormones and risk of osteosarcoma.14

Page 5 of 12
The risk of osteosarcoma increases with increasing breed size and especially height13. It is a common
cause of death in medium/large, large, and giant breeds. Osteosarcoma is the third most common cause of
death in Golden Retrievers10 and is even more common in larger breeds13.

Given the poor prognosis of osteosarcoma and its frequency in many breeds, spay/neuter of immature dogs
in the medium/large, large, and giant breeds is apparently associated with a significant and elevated risk of
death due to osteosarcoma.

Mammary Cancer (Breast Cancer)

Mammary tumors are by far the most common tumors in intact female dogs, constituting some 53% of all
malignant tumors in female dogs in a study of dogs in Norway15 where spaying is much less common than in
the USA.

50-60% of mammary tumors are malignant, for which there is a significant risk of metastasis16. Mammary
tumors in dogs have been found to have estrogen receptors17, and the published research18 shows that the
relative risk (odds ratio) that a female will develop mammary cancer compared to the risk in intact females is
dependent on how many estrus cycles she experiences:

# of estrus cycles before spay Odds Ratio
None 0.005
1 0.08
2 or more 0.26
Intact 1.00

The same data when categorized differently showed that the relative risk (odds ratio) that females will
develop mammary cancer compared to the risk in intact females indicated that:

Age at Spaying Odds Ratio
≤ 29 months 0.06
≥ 30 months 0.40 (not statistically significant at the P<0.05 level)
Intact 1.00

Please note that these are RELATIVE risks. This study has been referenced elsewhere many times but the
results have often been misrepresented as absolute risks.

A similar reduction in breast cancer risk was found for women under the age of 40 who lost their estrogen
production due to “artificial menopause”19 and breast cancer in humans is known to be estrogen activated.

Mammary cancer was found to be the 10th most common cause of years of lost life in Golden Retrievers,
even though 86% of female GRs were spayed, at a median age of 3.4 yrs10. Considering that the female
subset accounts for almost all mammary cancer cases, it probably would rank at about the 5th most common
cause of years of lost life in female GRs. It would rank higher still if more female GRs had been kept intact
up to 30 months of age.

Boxers, cocker spaniels, English Springer spaniels, and dachshunds are breeds at high risk of mammary
tumors15. A population of mostly intact female Boxers was found to have a 40% chance of developing
mammary cancer between the ages of 6-12 years of age15. There are some indications that purebred dogs
may be at higher risk than mixed breed dogs, and purebred dogs with high inbreeding coefficients may be at
higher risk than those with low inbreeding coefficients20. More investigation is required to determine if these
are significant.

In summary, spaying female dogs significantly reduces the risk of mammary cancer (a common cancer),
and the fewer estrus cycles experienced at least up to 30 months of age, the lower the risk will be.

Page 6 of 12
Female Reproductive Tract Cancer (Uterine, Cervical, and Ovarian Cancers)

Uterine/cervical tumors are rare in dogs, constituting just 0.3% of tumors in dogs21.

Spaying will remove the risk of ovarian tumors, but the risk is only 0.5%22.

While spaying will remove the risk of reproductive tract tumors, it is unlikely that surgery can be justified to
prevent the risks of uterine, cervical, and ovarian cancers as the risks are so low.

Urinary Tract Cancer (Bladder and Urethra Cancers)

An age-matched retrospective study found that spay/neuter dogs were two times more likely to develop
lower urinary tract tumors (bladder or urethra) compared to intact dogs23. These tumors are nearly always
malignant, but are infrequent, accounting for less than 1% of canine tumors. So this risk is unlikely to weigh
heavily on spay/neuter decisions.

Airedales, Beagles, and Scottish Terriers are at elevated risk for urinary tract cancer while German
Shepherds have a lower than average risk23.


Hemangiosarcoma is a common cancer in dogs. It is a major cause of death in some breeds, such as
Salukis, French Bulldogs, Irish Water Spaniels, Flat Coated Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Boxers, Afghan
Hounds, English Setters, Scottish Terriesr, Boston Terriers, Bulldogs, and German Shepherd Dogs24.

In an aged-matched case controlled study, spayed females were found to have a 2.2 times higher risk of
splenic hemangiosarcoma compared to intact females24.

A retrospective study of cardiac hemangiosarcoma risk factors found a >5 times greater risk in spayed
female dogs compared to intact female dogs and a 1.6 times higher risk in neutered male dogs compared to
intact male dogs.25 The authors suggest a protective effect of sex hormones against hemangiosarcoma,
especially in females.

In breeds where hermangiosarcoma is an important cause of death, the increased risk associated with
spay/neuter is likely one that should factor into decisions on whether or when to sterilize a dog.


Spay/neuter in dogs was found to be correlated with a three fold increased risk of hypothyroidism compared
to intact dogs. 26.

The researchers suggest a cause-and-effect relationship: They wrote: “More important [than the mild direct
impact on thyroid function] in the association between [spaying and] neutering and hypothyroidism may be
the effect of sex hormones on the immune system. Castration increases the severity of autoimmune
thyroiditis in mice” which may explain the link between spay/neuter and hypothyroidism in dogs.

Hypothyroidism in dogs causes obesity, lethargy, hair loss, and reproductive abnormalities.27

The lifetime risk of hypothyroidism in breed health surveys was found to be 1 in 4 in Golden Retrievers10, 1
in 3 in Akitas28, and 1 in 13 in Great Danes29.

Page 7 of 12

Owing to changes in metabolism, spay/neuter dogs are more likely to be overweight or obese than intact
dogs. One study found a two fold increased risk of obesity in spayed females compared to intact females30.
Another study found that spay/neuter dogs were 1.6 (females) or 3.0 (males) times more likely to be obese
than intact dogs, and 1.2 (females) or 1.5 (males) times more likely to be overweight than intact dogs31.

A survey study of veterinary practices in the UK found that 21% of dogs were obese.30

Being obese and/or overweight is associated with a host of health problems in dogs. Overweight dogs are
more likely to be diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism, ruptured cruciate ligament, hypothyroidism, lower
urinary tract disease, and oral disease32. Obese dogs are more likely to be diagnosed with hypothyroidism,
diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, ruptured cruciate ligament, and neoplasia (tumors)32.


Some data indicate that neutering doubles the risk of diabetes in male dogs, but other data showed no
significant change in diabetes risk with neutering33. In the same studies, no association was found between
spaying and the risk of diabetes.

Adverse Vaccine Reactions

A retrospective cohort study of adverse vaccine reactions in dogs was conducted, which included allergic
reactions, hives, anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, cardiovascular shock, and sudden death. Adverse reactions
were 30% more likely in spayed females than intact females, and 27% more likely in neutered males than
intact males34.

The investigators discuss possible cause-and-effect mechanisms for this finding, including the roles that sex
hormones play in body’s ability to mount an immune response to vaccination.34

Toy breeds and smaller breeds are at elevated risk of adverse vaccine reactions, as are Boxers, English
Bulldogs, Lhasa Apsos, Weimaraners, American Eskimo Dogs, Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, Welsh
Corgis, Siberian Huskies, Great Danes, Labrador Retrievers, Doberman Pinschers, American Pit Bull
Terriers, and Akitas.34 Mixed breed dogs were found to be at lower risk, and the authors suggest genetic
hetereogeneity (hybrid vigor) as the cause.

Urogenital Disorders

Urinary incontinence is common in spayed female dogs, which can occur soon after spay surgery or after a
delay of up to several years. The incidence rate in various studies is 4-20% 35,36,37 for spayed females
compared to only 0.3% in intact females38. Urinary incontinence is so strongly linked to spaying that it is
commonly called “spay incontinence” and is caused by urethral sphincter incompetence39, though the
biological mechanism is unknown. Most (but not all) cases of urinary incontinence respond to medical
treatment, and in many cases this treatment needs to be continued for the duration of the dog’s life.40

A retrospective study found that persistent or recurring urinary tract (bladder) infections (UTIs) were 3-4
times more likely in spayed females dogs than in intact females41. Another retrospective study found that
female dogs spayed before 5 1ŕ2 months of age were 2.76 times more likely to develop UTIs compared to
those spayed after 5 1ŕ2 months of age.42

Depending on the age of surgery, spaying causes abnormal development of the external genitalia. Spayed
females were found to have an increased risk of recessed vulva, vaginal dermatitis, vaginitis, and UTIs.43
The risk is higher still for female dogs spayed before puberty.43

Page 8 of 12

Pyometra (Infection of the Uterus)

Pet insurance data in Sweden (where spaying is very uncommon) found that 23% of all female dogs
developed pyometra before 10 years of age44. Bernese Mountain dogs, Rottweilers, rough-haired Collies,
Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Golden Retrievers were found to be high risk breeds44. Female dogs
that have not whelped puppies are at elevated risk for pyometra45. Rarely, spayed female dogs can
develop “stump pyometra” related to incomplete removal of the uterus.

Pyometra can usually be treated surgically or medically, but 4% of pyometra cases led to death44.
Combined with the incidence of pyometra, this suggests that about 1% of intact female dogs will die from

Perianal Fistulas

Male dogs are twice as likely to develop perianal fistulas as females, and spay/neutered dogs have a
decreased risk compared to intact dogs46.

German Shepherd Dogs and Irish Setters are more likely to develop perianal fistulas than are other

Non-cancerous Disorders of the Prostate Gland

The incidence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH, enlarged prostate) increases with age in intact male
dogs, and occurs in more than 80% of intact male dogs older than the age of 5 years47. Most cases of BPH
cause no problems, but in some cases the dog will have difficulty defecating or urinating.

Neutering will prevent BPH. If neutering is done after the prostate has become enlarged, the enlarged
prostate will shrink relatively quickly.

BPH is linked to other problems of the prostate gland, including infections, abscesses, and cysts, which can
sometimes have serious consequences.

Orthopedic Disorders

In a study of beagles, surgical removal of the ovaries (as happens in spaying) caused an increase in the rate
of remodeling of the ilium (pelvic bone)48, suggesting an increased risk of hip dysplasia with spaying.
Spaying was also found to cause a net loss of bone mass in the spine 49.

Spay/neuter of immature dogs delays the closure of the growth plates in bones that are still growing,
causing those bones to end up significantly longer than in intact dogs or those spay/neutered after
maturity50. Since the growth plates in various bones close at different times, spay/neuter that is done after
some growth plates have closed but before other growth plates have closed might result in a dog with
unnatural proportions, possibly impacting performance and long term durability of the joints.

Spay/neuter is associated with a two fold increased risk of cranial cruciate ligament rupture51. Perhaps this
is associated with the increased risk of obesity30.

Spay/neuter before 5 1ŕ2 months of age is associated with a 70% increased aged-adjusted risk of hip
dysplasia compared to dogs spayed/neutered after 5 1ŕ2 months of age, though there were some indications
that the former may have had a lower severity manifestation of the disease42. The researchers suggest “it
is possible that the increase in bone length that results from early-age gonadectomy results in changes in
joint conformation, which could lead to a diagnosis of hip dysplasia.”

Page 9 of 12
In a breed health survey study of Airedales, spay/neuter dogs were significantly more likely to suffer hip
dysplasia as well as “any musculoskeletal disorder”, compared to intact dogs52, however possible
confounding factors were not controlled for, such as the possibility that some dogs might have been
spayed/neutered because they had hip dysplasia or other musculoskeletal disorders.

Compared to intact dogs, another study found that dogs neutered six months prior to a diagnosis of hip
dysplasia were 1.5 times as likely to develop clinical hip dysplasia.53

Compared to intact dogs, spayed/neutered dogs were found to have a 3.1 fold higher risk of patellar

Geriatric Cognitive Impairment

Neutered male dogs and spayed female dogs are at increased risk of progressing from mild to severe
geriatric cognitive impairment compared to intact male dogs55. There weren’t enough intact geriatric
females available for the study to determine their risk.

Geriatric cognitive impairment includes disorientation in the house or outdoors, changes in social
interactions with human family members, loss of house training, and changes in the sleep-wake cycle55.

The investigators state “This finding is in line with current research on the neuro-protective roles of
testosterone and estrogen at the cellular level and the role of estrogen in preventing Alzheimer’s disease in
human females. One would predict that estrogens would have a similar protective role in the sexually intact
female dogs; unfortunately too few sexually intact female dogs were available for inclusion in the present
study to test the hypothesis”55


An objective reading of the veterinary medical literature reveals a complex situation with respect to the long-
term health risks and benefits associated with spay/neuter in dogs. The evidence shows that spay/neuter
correlates with both positive AND adverse health effects in dogs. It also suggests how much we really do
not yet understand about this subject.

On balance, it appears that no compelling case can be made for neutering most male dogs to prevent future
health problems, especially immature male dogs. The number of health problems associated with neutering
may exceed the associated health benefits in most cases.

For female dogs, the situation is more complex. The number of health benefits associated with spaying may
exceed the associated health problems in many (not all) cases. On balance, whether spaying improves the
odds of overall good health or degrades them probably depends on the age of the dog and the relative risk
of various diseases in the different breeds.

The traditional spay/neuter age of six months as well as the modern practice of pediatric spay/neuter appear
to predispose dogs to health risks that could otherwise be avoided by waiting until the dog is physically
mature, or perhaps in the case of many male dogs, foregoing it altogether unless medically necessary.

The balance of long-term health risks and benefits of spay/neuter will vary from one dog to the next. Breed,
age, and gender are variables that must be taken into consideration in conjunction with non-medical factors
for each individual dog. Across-the-board recommendations for all dogs do not appear to be supportable
from findings in the veterinary medical literature.

Page 10 of 12


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